|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2019|
|Authors:||R. Castañeda-Osorio, Belokobylskij, S. A., Braet, Y., Zaldivar-Riverón, A.|
|Journal:||Organisms Diversity & Evolution|
|Keywords:||ichneumonoidea, Insecta, phylogeny, Relaxed molecular clock, taxonomy|
The tribe Holcobraconini (Braconidae: Doryctinae) is a group of parasitoid wasps mainly found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It contains seven genera (Holcobracon Cameron, Ivondrovia Shenefelt & Marsh, Liodoryctes Szépligeti, Monarea Szépligeti, Nervellius Roman, Odontobracon Cameron and Zombrus Marshall), most of which are characterized by having the m-cu vein of the hind wing long and strongly curved towards the apex of wing. Some studies, however, found that three doryctine genera that lack the above feature (Binarea Brullé, Liobracon Szépligeti and Odontodoryctes Granger) might be closely related to holcobraconines. Here, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among species of six holcobraconine genera and the three putative closely related genera using four gene markers and estimated the times of origin and diversification within the tribe. The holcobraconine genera were intermingled in a clade with the above three genera. Liobracon and Zombrus were not recovered as monophyletic. Acanthodoryctes Turner, Antidoryctes Belokobylskij & Quicke and Priosphys Enderlein were also included within the Holcobraconini based on morphology. Based on molecular evidence and on morphological examination of the genera involved, Holcobraconini is proposed to comprise 13 genera for which we include morphological diagnoses. The origin of the tribe probably occurred during the late Palaeocene to mid Eocene, 44.43 to 58.15 Mya. At least two main dispersal events from the Ethiopian to the other biogeographic regions could have led to the current geographic distribution of the Holcobraconini associated with the global increase of temperature during the Late Palaeocene to Middle Eocene.
Systematics and evolution of the parasitoid wasp genera of the tribe Holcobraconini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae)
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